The Kavango Zambezi (KAZA) Transfrontier Conservation Area (TFCA) is the largest terrestrial transboundary conservation area in the world. KAZA is located at the confluence of five southern African countries - Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe – and covers an area of 520,000 km². KAZA is a mixed land-use landscape with 20 National Parks, 85 Forest Reserves, 22 Conservancies, 11 Sanctuaries, 103 Wildlife Management Areas and 11 Game Management Areas. About 20% of the land falls under state protection and roughly 29% used for agriculture. KAZA is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites - the Victoria Falls, the Okavango Delta and the Tsodilo Hills. The KAZA TFCA vision of “Establishing a world-class Transfrontier conservation area and tourism destination in the Okavango and Zambezi river basin regions within the context of sustainable development” is premised upon a concerted, five-country effort to harness the region’s rich natural resources to promote economic development through conservation and tourism. Given KAZA’s regional and ecological/conservation significance, WWF has been supporting it since inception.
KAZA TFCA is home to abundant and valuable wildlife, which contributes greatly towards the regions biodiversity and tourism resources, as the region’s diverse woodlands, wetlands and grasslands host the world’s largest population of elephants (~225,000) – roughly half of Africa’s population. It is home to an estimated 25% of Africa’s wild dogs, almost 15% of the continent’s lions (more than 3,000 individuals), and approximately 15% of the world’s wild cheetahs. It is therefore also a crucial conservation landscape for the future of large carnivores, not just in Africa but globally. In addition, almost 200 species of mammals and more than 600 bird species are found in KAZA. Vast and highly valuable teak forests are found within one of the largest blocks of dryland Miombo forests in southern Africa, covering extensive tracts of Angolan and Zambian river basins, providing habitat for wildlife, human livelihoods and ensuring hydrological stability to critical watersheds.
KAZA’s relatively small population of 2.6 million people live at a low density of 5 persons/km2 and are largely concentrated along the three KAZA rivers. Livelihoods are heavily dependent upon natural resources, subsistence agriculture and livestock herding. These practices are generally carried out as a necessity for basic livelihood survival and environmental sustainability is not a key concern. The communities are typically poor, with a relatively small numbers directly involved in the formal employment sector, which has been shown by the 2013/2014 socio-economic livelihood baseline study in KAZA TFCA. Results indicate human, natural, physical, and financial assets in KAZA to be poorly developed, with a livelihood index being comparatively low and averaging 50 points. Botswana scores the highest score of 56.7 and Zambia the lowest with 47.7. In order to measure process or recess in socio-economic development within the KAZA TFCA, comparative data and subsequent rigorous analysis at the household level is needed.
2. Socio-economic survey work in KAZA TFCA
A socio-economic baseline study was carried out in 2013/14. Repeating this survey, using the same survey tools and addressing the same households is inevitable to measure progress or regress. Ensuring rigorous measurement is needed for maximum comparability of results. As financial and logistical effort of surveys generally decrease with repetition, the 2014 team recommended to repeat and analyse the full questionnaire as it allows for more detailed analyses. The repetition of the survey will therefore allow KAZA Secretariat to generate comparative socio-economic data to assess the development of the KAZA socio-economic indicators over the past 6 years, using the KAZA M&E system. In addition to generating comparative data of previously surveyed villages, KAZA also plans to collect baseline data for the three priority Wildlife Dispersal Areas (WDA), which are a major focus of investments within the KAZA TFCA.
However, during recent discussions with KAZA partners and experts, it became very apparent that a more long term, sustainable a participatory approach is wanted, instead of “one time drive in surveys” which are costly and labor intensive. A more participatory approach will empower communities to engage more actively and long term in their own monitoring of resources, support adaptive management at the most local level and provides capacity building for communities. For these reasons, the decision was taken to identify and develop a more participatory community-based socio-economic monitoring approach for KAZA TFCA. A methodology, which is co-designed with the target communities, utilizing local resources (e.g. schools) and knowledge. At the same time, providing capacity building on monitoring skills and innovative IT systems.
The challenge is to develop a two-pronged approach: (1) one which allows the collection of data according to the previous survey to enable comparison between the baseline and now and (2) one that develops and establishes the integrated community-based method within the target communities.
Additionally, a strong collaborative group of implementers and experts about community-based socio-monitoring in KAZA (and beyond), including institutions in the 5 partner countries will eventually be created. These do not only assist in the development of such an innovative approach but also provide long term support to the monitoring.
The newly developed approach will then provide a future blueprint and standard for all future socio-economic monitoring in KAZA for all partners – with regular adaptation as new insights emerge. Care must also be taken to collect all necessary socio-economic data to update the KAZA livelihood index, which entails maintaining the initial survey structure but also adding new survey questions if required. Ideally this survey approach would also become a more regular activity due to higher participation from communities due to increased accessibility.
Additionally, a substantial need for revision of the questionnaire used during the 2013/2014 KAZA socio-economic baseline survey was identified, which includes pitfalls in the design of the survey. Adaptions also need to be made with regards to the assessment of the current COVID 19 pandemic and its impacts.
3. Pilot project areas for implementation
In Zambia, the target areas will be the villages in Silowana complex, where the 2013/14 survey was carried out and where various support projects are active. This will be implemented by WWF Zambia.
In Zimbabwe the target communities are Mabale and Zambezi Deka in Hwange district and Kariangwe (dry-run) and Lusulu in Binga district. At least these villages must be covered in this current assignment. However, eventually all villages previously surveyed by the 2013/14 villages should be surveyed/included.
4. Scope of assignment
The methodology is currently being developed by a team around Prof. Christo Fabricius at the Nelson Mandela University in South Africa together with a sub-set of the KAZA Impact Monitoring Working Group (KIM WG) members (core group). Despite the implications caused by the COVID restrictions, every effort will be done to allow a co-design approach and engagement with target communities to ensure applicability and ownership of the methodology.
It is also an overall objective to establish a collaborative group, consisting of partners interested and/or already invested in socioeconomic studies in KAZA TFCA. Development of the methodology should therefore involve iterations and feedback loops with KIM WG and this collaborative group.
The methodology needs to include the data collection for the indicators as per 2013/14 survey to allow comparison and assessment of the development of the socio-economic condition of KAZA communities and of the KAZA Livelihood index.
After the development and approval of the methodology by the KIM WG and the collaborative group, capacity building on the methodology will be done with the implementing institutions and communities. This will happen in February and March 2021. Data collection and integration of the community-based survey methods should happen Mid-March and April 2021, with the reporting by the end of April.
It is anticipated that the lessons learned from the practical application of the field work will be incorporated into the tool kit and an updated final version developed at the end of the assignment.
The subsequent data treatment of cleaning and analysis will be done in a collaborative effort with other academic partners (University of Bonn, University of Namibia, Nelson Mandela University).
The overall objectives are:
a) Provide expert comments and input into the design of the methodology until its finalization
b) Attend one or more preparatory meetings with NMU team before the pre-pilot.
c) Test (“dry-run” / pre-pilot) the methodology in at least two villages and implement the new community-based socio-economic monitoring methodology for KAZA in at least four pilot villages. The objective is to capacitate local communities to, with the help of local facilitators, implement the methodology themselves at regular intervals and report back on it. Implement all logistical and other preparations for the dry run as well as for the full survey.
d) During the test and the full survey, provide a report back on the previous survey (2013/14) as an entry point into the communities (this should be included in the toolkit),
e) Collect data through application of the methodology which includes the revised 2013/14 questionnaire for the KAZA M&E system and monitoring needs as identified by the communities,
f) Report back and provide data according to a provided template and recommend modifications to tools.
a) Participation in training sessions on the newly developed methodology
b) Co-design meeting (dry-run/ pre-pilot) with at least two communities and feedback into first drafts of methodology
c) Identification and contracting of enumerators/contact persons, and ensure that they receive training, to implement the survey and preparation and putting in place all logistics for the survey implementation
d) Participate as active members in the collaborative group around the SE survey in KAZA (it is desired that this participation continues beyond this assignment as well)
e) Collect raw data from the survey and make it available to NMU team, the KIM WG and University of Bonn and Cologne
f) Survey report including recommendations and final guiding tool kit to allow monitoring in the long term.
6. Qualifications of the Consultant(s)
The consultancy will be conducted by a consultant / consultancy firm
• A Master’s degree or above in environmental and natural resource management including monitoring and evaluation or related subject
• Minimum five years in community-based socio-ecological research and survey experience in Zimbabwe
• Knowledge of existing research structures in the KAZA communities that can be mobilized at short notice
• Logistical expertise to carry out community surveys
• Excellent academic engagement providing capacity building to Zimbabweans
• Good oral and written communications skills
• Fluency in English
7. Duration and location of the assignment
It is envisaged that consultant(s) will be engaged from 1 March 2021 until 30 April 2021 and should be based in Zimbabwe
Interested potential Consultants should send in their CVs/Company Profile, technical and financial proposals clearly indicating how their qualifications and experience match the Terms of Reference to email@example.com.
Consultant(s) will be selected as individual consultant or firm and contracted on terms to be negotiated with qualifying candidates.
Deadline for applications: 05 March 2021
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